uwouldntkno

nubbsgalore:

photos of sakurajima, the most active volcano in japan, by (click pic) takehito miyatake (previously featured) and martin rietze. volcanic storms can rival the intensity of massive supercell thunderstorms, but the source of the charge responsible for this phenomenon remains hotly debated.

in the kind of storm clouds that generate conventional lightning, ice particles and soft hail collide, building up positive and negative charges, respectively. they separate into layers, and the charge builds up until the electric field is high enough to trigger lightning.

but the specific mechanism by which particles of differing charges are separated in the ash cloud is still unknown. lightning has been observed between the eruption plume and the volcano right at the start of an eruption, suggesting that there are processes that occur inside the volcano to lead to charge separation.  

volcanic lightning could yield clues about the earth’s geological past, and could answer questions about the beginning of life on our planet. volcanic lightning could have been the essential spark that converted water, hydrogen, ammonia, and methane molecules present on a primeval earth into amino acids, the building blocks of life.

(see also: previous volcanology posts)

zondvloed
zondvloed:

This is a picture of an 800-year skeleton found in the Bulgarian coastal town of Sozopol. This skeleton, like a number of other ones found in proximity to it, had its chest impaled with an iron rod upon discovery. It is believed to be indicative of some sort of exorcistic ritual against vampirism - a cultural phenomenon widely spread and rooted, even to this day, in European folklore. In Bulgaria alone, over 100 skeletons of this manner have been excavated, and it is not a phenomenon significative to that country alone. Especially in the mid-to-south-eastern regions of Europe, the vampire is well anchored in the socio-cultural spirit.Although the conception of the vampire through-out European history differs a lot from more modern examples of fiction, such as Count Dracula, these archaelogical finds interestingly cements - far beyond Hollywood cinema and popular culture - the concept of heart impalement as means of slaying a vampire, and indicates that the idea of vampirism is a timeless mythological and folkloristic conception.

zondvloed:

This is a picture of an 800-year skeleton found in the Bulgarian coastal town of Sozopol. This skeleton, like a number of other ones found in proximity to it, had its chest impaled with an iron rod upon discovery. It is believed to be indicative of some sort of exorcistic ritual against vampirism - a cultural phenomenon widely spread and rooted, even to this day, in European folklore. In Bulgaria alone, over 100 skeletons of this manner have been excavated, and it is not a phenomenon significative to that country alone. Especially in the mid-to-south-eastern regions of Europe, the vampire is well anchored in the socio-cultural spirit.

Although the conception of the vampire through-out European history differs a lot from more modern examples of fiction, such as Count Dracula, these archaelogical finds interestingly cements - far beyond Hollywood cinema and popular culture - the concept of heart impalement as means of slaying a vampire, and indicates that the idea of vampirism is a timeless mythological and folkloristic conception.